The 40-year-old Brodeur, a member of all three of New Jersey's Stanley Cup championship teams, appeared in 59 games last season, recording a 31-21-4 mark, and started all 24 playoff games on the Devils' way to the Stanley Cup Finals.
The team would not comment on terms of the deal, but local reports said Brodeur signed a two-year deal worth $9 million.
A four-time winner of the Vezina Trophy as top goalie in the National Hockey League, Brodeur has accumulated 656 victories and 119 shutouts, both NHL career records. His 113 playoff victories are second all-time, while his 24 shutouts are first.
"Deep down what I always wanted was to re-sign with New Jersey," two-time Canadian Olympic gold medallist Brodeur told ESPN. "I'm glad the Devils stepped up when they did."
The Devils moved to keep their goaltending intact by also signing back-up Johan Hedberg of Sweden.
Hedberg, who has a career mark of 155-133-33 over 10 NHL seasons with Pittsburgh, Vancouver, Dallas, Atlanta and New Jersey, played in 27 games last season and posted a 17-7-2 record with four shutouts and a 2.23 goals-against average.