Cook won last year's world Test cricketer title, and his Ashes team-mate and fellow batsman Jonathan Trott also took the overall award in 2011 - judged across all formats. But when those prizes are handed out again in Colombo on Saturday night, there will be no England players in the running.
Instead, Cook and Finn - who has been a revelation with the white ball in the past 12 months - are England's only representatives in the 2012 roll of honour, other than a nomination for James Anderson in the people's award category.
Cook was listed in the ODI team of the year in his specialist opening role alongside India's Gautam Gambhir.
Other notable inclusions in a 12-man line-up, which has featured wicketkeeper-batsman Dhoni for the past five years, are Australia captain Michael Clarke and Pakistani off-spinner Saeed Ajmal.
The latter's omission from the shortlist for the cricketer-of-the-year award lists has been poorly received by his compatriots, and Pakistan issued a press release in which they mention a partial protest boycott of Saturday's ceremony.
The other Asian players are Sri Lanka's wicketkeeper-batsman Kumar Sangakkara and fast bowler Lasith Malinga, India's Virat Kohli and Pakistan allrounder Shahid Afridi.
South African fast bowler Morne Morkel completes the line-up.
"This team, along with the test team of the year was extremely difficult to decide upon, but we feel the side has strength to bat well down the order while also having a good variety for any type of conditions when it comes to its bowling attack," former West Indies captain Clive Lloyd, the chairman of the ICC Awards selection panel, said.
"With six countries represented and a vast expanse of talent the team would be a challenge to beat for any number of opposition sides."
The team (in batting order): Gautam Gambhir (India), Alastair Cook (England), Kumar Sangakkara (Sri Lanka), Virat Kohli (India), Mahendra Singh Dhoni (India, wicketkeeper/captain), Michael Clarke (Australia), Shahid Afridi (Pakistan), Morne Morkel (South Africa), Steven Finn (England), Lasith Malinga (Sri Lanka), Saeed Ajmal (Pakistan)
12th man: Shane Watson (Australia)